The learners will be Alzheimer’s disease patients and their families, healthcare staff, and adults from 30 to 65. Questions on different aspects of Alzheimer’s disease will be administered to test the learner’s ability and readiness to learn. Learners must understand the causes and effects of Alzheimer’s disease to ensure that they know the strategies and measures that can be used to prevent or control the disease. Moreover, they will know the circumstances that contributed to the present conditions. The learning process will be a flexible plan, and therefore, the process will take place in different channels. Following a request, the target learners will be mobilized by community health workers and ensure the program informs them. Learners will be enlightened about the content of the program before joining the activity.
To maximize the learning process’s effectiveness, educational programs will be offered for different groups of learners to ensure the specific needs of each group of learners are met.
The educational setting for the staff will be a healthcare setting. However, it is a classroom-based program. For this case, the most relevant plan is Dynamic Outcomes Management. The classroom-based program primarily relies on classroom-based instructional strategies. For this case, the strategy to be applied are; role-plays, video demonstrations, and lectures. A combination of these strategies will be useful in ensuring the maximum acquisition of relevant knowledge. The purpose of Dynamic Outcomes Management is to improve the quality of healthcare provided by enhancing the trainees’ level of skills and decision making, among others (Carayon, 2016). The education plan includes 8-hours of classroom-based learning. This program will be focused on increasing staff awareness and knowledge on Alzheimer’s disease. A challenge and a response checklist will be used for examination purposes.
The educational setting for patients will be an institutional setting. Different methods will be used in educating patients. However, to determine the best method to be applied, the patient’s health literacy will first be determined. The current knowledge level for patients will be assessed. Without functional health literacy education materials will not be useful. Agencies for Healthcare Research and Quality, has several resources that can be used in assessing patient health literacy. Patients with low health literacy are less likely to utilize educational and other health tools.
The first method implemented in educating patients on Alzheimer’s disease, is patient teach-back; this method involves explaining important concepts and self-management techniques. The clinician may then ask the patient to state what they have understood from the lesson. By asking patients to repeat the class in their own words, a clinician may highlight whether patients comprehend what they have been taught. If patients are unable to understand, new approaches can be developed. Different tools can be used to improve patient education, digital technologies, and paper handouts will also be implemented. However, this will depend on the patient’s preferences. Some of the materials used are one-on-one teaching and brochures or other printed materials, among others.
The educational setting for patients will be in a town hall. Different methods will be used in educating families on Alzheimer’s disease. The first method is health talks. This is the best way to pass health messages. Talking will ensure that health knowledge and facts are shared. The second method is the lecture. This is a simple, spoken, and quick way of presenting the subject matter to a group of people. To ensure that they understand the concepts, a follow-up discussion will be done. The last method is role play, which will involve acting out of real-life situations where the audience will watch and learn by seeing and discussing.
The staff, patients, and families will be assed in several ways. The type of assessment that will be used is criterion-referenced assessment. Criterion-referenced review is an essential foundation for engaging learners with the learning process. When done well, it will provide a shared language; enables evaluation of learners is achieved and allowed reliable and valid judgment. One way to do the assessment is through the use of questionnaires. The response provided will help in evaluating whether the specific goal of the teachings was met. The answers will help determine the areas that were well understood and the areas that were not. This will give a necessary foundation of what should be taught and discussed in the next lessons.
Purpose and rationale for selecting Alzheimer’s disease
Today, Alzheimer’s disease is the 6th leading cause of death in the U.S, which means that it is a severe illness that needs to be considered for research. The world is currently experiencing an epidemiological evolution of the disease. Alzheimer’s disease patients live 4 to 11 years after diagnosis or even more, depending on different factors. The condition doesn’t have a cure. However, symptom treatment options are available. The disease is the most frequent cause of dementia in western countries, and globally, the prevalence is estimated to be 24 million. In the United States, more than 5.8 million people are affected (Alzheimer’s Association, 2020). It is expected that frequency will double by 2040, given that developing and established countries are rapidly aging. The rise in societal aging is expected to increase the disease’s magnitude, which will translate into a costly public health burden shortly. Western Europe and North America have the highest prevalence of dementia, recorded at 5.4% and 6.4%, respectively.
Family members of Alzheimer’s disease patients experience feelings such as anger, discouragement, depression, fatigue, and sadness, among others. Caring for Alzheimer’s disease patients may create emotional stress regardless of whether they are receiving care in a healthcare facility or at home. Therefore, family caregivers face different challenges. Alzheimer’s disease develops when abnormal proteins in and around brain cells build-up, causing damage. As the disease progresses, patients experience memory loss and cognitive difficulties. Other effects of the disease on patients include personality and behavioral change, inability to perform daily living activities, trouble handling money, getting lost, and wandering, among others (James, & Bennett, 2019). Alzheimer’s disease’s controllable risks are lack of regular exercise, hypertension, high levels of cholesterol, and lack of intellectually stimulating activities. Therefore, if the target learning groups are comprehensively enlightened on the disease, they can help prevent the disease, which is a significant threat to life. In conclusion, this topic is essential because it will provide solutions that will help address the condition today and in the future by ensuring individuals are comprehensively enlightened on how to prevent and control the disease and create awareness of the disease’s prevalence.
The theoretical basis for teaching approaches used in the lesson
The teaching approach used in the lesson will be based on several theories. The first model is the health belief model that can be used to understand the attitude, educational needs, and behavior (Stewart, 2020). It is a model that will be used in the development of intervention strategies. For instance, it can be used to develop intervention strategies that can be used to avoid Alzheimer’s disease. It consists of key constructs that may be used to teach the staff, patients, and families to adopt a healthy lifestyle, including perceived benefits. This model describes that individuals respond best to messages on the disease in certain change conditions. The first condition is when a patient believes that they are at risk of developing the given condition. The second condition is when an individual believes that the consequences are undesirable and the risk may be severe. The third condition is when an individual believes that a change in a particular behavior may reduce the risk. The fourth condition is when an individual believes that what blocks behavior change may be managed and overcome.
The second model is cognitive dissonance theory. According to this theory, a nurse should understand the perception of a patient. It is also essential to understand individuals’ perceptions of consistency threats to ensure that the individuals are best educated (Stewart, 2020). It involves changing beliefs, attitudes, and values by individuals. This consists of any concept that they may have on Alzheimer’s. Some other changes that they may be required to make include changes in activities, for instance, being involved in more physical activity to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Another difference is accepting assistance from others when an individual with Alzheimer’s disease or is at risk of the disease asks for help. The last change is the change in diet or habits. Several changes can be made to avoid Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, they have to accept to change some of their diet and routine to prevent the disease.
Alzheimer’s Association. (2020). 2020 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. Retrieved from: https://alz-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/alz.12068
Carayon, P. (Ed.). (2016). Handbook of human factors and ergonomics in health care and patient safety. CRC Press.
James, B. D., & Bennett, D. A. (2019). Causes and patterns of dementia: An update in the era of redefining Alzheimer’s disease. Annual review of public health, 40, 65-84.
Stewart, M. N. (2020). The Art and Science of Patient Education for Health Literacy.