Abstract

The document provides information on how memory loss affects individuals as they age. It provides evidence that certain visual training along with other techniques, can improve the cognition of older adults, implementing encouragement and persuasion.


       Memory is one of the most talked about topics when it comes to what takes place during aging.  It is not a secret that memory is such an importance in an individual’s everyday life. However, memory is one of the things that many feel fails when a person reaches the late stages of their life.  As early as 3 years old, memory is evident in a child and continues to improve during middle adulthood then up into an individual’s 40’s. Cognitive psychologist(s) seem to be intrigued by the study of memory; this could be because it’s how individuals define who they are.  After the age of 40 the cognitive process can start to decrease but still is found functional (Santrock, 2012).

    As we age the brain will also change and in this case decline in performance. However, this does not mean the same for everyone. The more an individual takes care of their body meaning eating well, working out, and making sure to exercise their brain, doing activities that keeps a person sharp mentally can make a huge difference.  As a person age it is up to that person to make sure the process of learning continues. As many reaches their senior years, it has been said that many report issues with wording, driving, remembering projects that should be done around the home, and most of the time remembering to take medications (William and Kemper, 2010).



     As a person age normally it is quite normal to have signs of forgetfulness during this course.  This is something that many experience in their daily lives. These simple things could be related to remembering where a book was place, where the keys were laid, and dates of events and times (National Institute of aging, 2009). There are seniors who have reported issues when it comes to memory and have described it to be devastation to one’s life. During this stage seniors are often reported to struggle with Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, vascular dementia, and dementia with lewy bodies which is a buildup in the brain (Hersh, 2013).

          When it comes to diseases like Alzheimer’s and dementia genetics and environmental plays a major role. That is why as an individual age, it is important to increase cognitive functions for memory gain. Some activities that are a great source for keeping the brain active are checkers, chess, computer logic games, and card memory games. Reasoning skills have also been a great suggestion when it comes to maintaining cognition (William and Kemper, 2010). It is a great time to bring up generativity vs. stagnation.



    When an individual reaches this stage and feel unfulfilled this can also have an impact on memory cognition. During this time an individual may have low self esteem and no motivation which can also allow them to lose their sense of self. Certain circumstances as this can have such a negative impact on one’s impairment. This is the same if the individual has to go through integrity vs. despair. The loss of desire can also have a negativity impact on the ability to seek better mental heights (Santrock, 2012). In a study that was conducted by Cavallini, Pagnin, and Vecchi, on memory training with older adults, focused on memory training and memory aids to see if it could improve the older adult’s cognitive functions.

         The purpose for the study was to correct the non useful of cognitive strategies while mnemonic training was implemented to improve general attitude (Cavallini, Pagnin, and Vecchi, 2003). During the research study, the two methods that were implemented showed improvement with the adults memory recall. The research results not only matched up with Cavallini, Pagnin, and Vecchi hypothesis, but also revealed that the strategies implemented would indeed improve memory and could be implemented in everyday life. In all, this would be an exceptional tool when it comes to the elderly and to build up emotional and motivational capabilities.


Introduction to Study

Hypothesis: Visuals memory training can increase in older adults working memories, with encouragement and persuasion as tools.

       Memory training has been known to be extremely useful when aiding older adults to improve their memory. Visual techniques have been considered to be one of the most powerful ways to improve one’s memory. As we have heard the saying beings can be such visual creatures. In this case, there is nothing better than being able to visualize our dreams. This is also extremely better when you have someone who is assured of themselves and confident in what they chose to do. As I have mentioned before, these visual training techniques will improve memory performance, and will also give the older adults a more positive view of aging if given addition training that aging is not at all negative but positive.

      This persuasion will help motivate the older adults to think differently and feel that they are capable to learn. This is also included with encouragement providing assurance that they can achieve these goals. It is stated that “A self-fulfilling prophecy is a belief that comes true because we are acting as if it is already true (Kaufman Psy.D, 2012). This is also called the “Fake it till you make it” rule. I find that in order to accomplish anything you have to be motivated and believe it can be done. These techniques can help gain great performance in training and help with performance in memory.



     Subjects

     I plan to have 50 older adults between the ages of 60-70 years of age in a senior community. These adults will be split evenly as male and female. I will also have men and women of different nationalities. The men and women must be in great mental and psychical health, and more importantly want to improve their memory. In this case, there is reason that some men and women will not be able to participate in this study. This would be if any of these individuals suffer with dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, suffers from blindness or any other disability that may hinder them in participating or would cause them to not be consider healthy. I would request that these men and women all be put through a screening before eligible.  All participants must be able to read and write and speak English.

Method

   Out of the 50 men and women, there will be one group which would be considered the controlled group. This would be group one; the first group will be taking through some visual training which would be word association, and how to receive information.  Group two will participate in the same program with additional training. Each group will switch off having constant encouragement and persuasion team. This will go on for a period of 4 weeks. There will be a conductor to get the reports from each person at the end of each week on their progress. This will also include the older adult’s feedback on motivation and emotional stability with and without team.

Results  

  The ending results will then give a clear indication of how these older adults performed, while being encourage and persuaded rather than not being encourage or persuaded during the training. The whole point of this test is to see if there is a greater increase in visual memory testing when the mood of the adult is heightened or weakened during their challenges. For the weeks that the groups have the encouragement and persuasion team should show a much dramatical result than without the team. The technique implemented will even show greater self esteem and positive emotional state.

Discussion      

   Although this study seems to be positive and bound for great results, we must take into consideration that there will be some issues that may arise in this training. I would have to say one of those things we have to consider is the education level of each individual participating. It is clear that the level of education does depend on the progress of the results. Many who may struggle with reading, writing, pronunciation of words could hurt the results of this study. This is why it is extremely important that each individual has the knowledge to read and write. In addition able to speak English even if they are of another race.

     I have to say that I do expect individuals who are Americans to out-perform those who are non Americans. My reason is because the level of English spoken and the ability to comprehend words coming from team are easily understood. In addition, I would expect to see more women at the top of the charts when it comes to the study.  However when it comes to sensitivity, I am sure women will have a harder time without the support of members in stressful situations. It was stated that “there some apparent sex differences in emotion, and how big are those differences (using the d statistic where small differences are ±0.20, moderate differences are ±0.50, and large differences are ±0.80 and above)? Probably the most compelling evidence for sex differences in emotion exists in the domain of negative emotions(Brody & Hall, 2008; McLean & Anderson, 2009).  Over all I feel when it comes to it all, gender should not be a factor, nor should ethnicity.                           

      Ethical considerations will also be addressed before the training becomes active. Each person will be required to fill out a form that will give them a run through of what the study requires and giving each person a chance to agree to the terms. The omission of the study will be done after the training is completed.  The study will expand into other research on the ability of the participants to learn new styles of memory and work along and without teams and still mentally be able to participate in the training.


References

Aging and everyday memory: The beneficial effect of memory training. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14511850

APA (2006). Memory and aging. American Psychological Association.  Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/memory-and-aging.pdf

Cavallini, E., Pagnin, A., Vecchi, T., (2003).  Aging and everyday memory:  The beneficial effect of memory training.  Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics (37)3: p 241-257.  Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/science/article/pii/S016749430300063

       @. (n.d.). Are Women More Emotional Than Men? Retrieved September 19, 2016, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sexual-personalities/201504/are-women-more-emotional-men

@. (n.d.). Using Self-Fulfilling Prophecies to Your Advantage. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/psychology-writers/201210/using-self-fulfilling-prophecies-your-advantage