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Individuals differ in appearance and even in genetics. This is the reason why some have some genetic problems that are inherited while others have genes that make them prone to various diseases. Against all odds, others have genetic disorders that make them immune to diseases. One such example is the people with sickle cell and these cells make them immune to malaria. One can assess an individual physically and even internally to detect whether their systems and some of their organs are impaired. For physical impairment, it can be observed and not much is needed to be taken to the laboratory. One should be keen on the tests that they are conducting and the equipment’s being used to avoid diagnosing a patient with the wrong disease and giving the wrong treatment.

In this case, a patient was diagnosed from head to toe, and below are the diagnosis given for each diagnosis the equipment used, and the laboratory findings are given as justification.  Before even taking the individual to the lab, the first thing was to look at his general appearance from which one can diagnose any abnormality that may be present. In this case, by looking at the patient, it was evident that he had an alteration reflect neurologic impairment. Neurological impairment is a disorder where the capacity of the nervous system to function is limited or if it is functioning, it will function with difficulty.  The patient also had an oral injury which was followed by an improper fitting denture. It was also evident that the patient might have had a potential mental illness. In this case, not so much lab equipment’s had to be used since the diagnosis was made through observation and palpation.

 In the simplest word, possible palpation can be termed as feeling using the fingers during a physical examination.  The diagnosis might have reflected the availability of other diseases in the body but this would require more diagnosis to find out. After the whole body was diagnosed, it was evident that the patient had two stomach disorders the first one being gastroesophageal reflux disease otherwise denoted as GERD. This is a disease that occurs when the stomach acid flows back into the tube that acts as a connector between the mouth and the stomach. For this reason, the patient will always experience heartburns which are caused by the acid being released.  The first way to diagnose GERD is with the help of lab equipment which is known as an endoscope. The process of using the endoscope is known as upper endoscopy. The endoscope has a light and a camera and it is put down the through so that the doctor can examine the esophagus and the stomach at the same time. Since an acid has a high pH, one can use the ambulatory acid probe test to check whether the acidity in the stomach is beyond the normal amount.

Lastly, an X-ray of the upper digestive system also helps a great deal in the diagnosis of the disease. Before concluding that the disease is GERD, some symptoms have to be observed, and they include chest pains, difficulty in swallowing, and even the presence of a lump in the throat. This shows the importance of conducting a-head-to toe diagnosis on the patient. The little abnormalities that will be found in the overall system will help come up with the diagnostics of one common disease. The priority level I is diagnosis acute pain. In this case, the disease causes acute pains in the lower abdominal. The second priority diagnosis is for nausea.  If the patient is diagnosed with acute pain, the first way to help them is by giving them medicine that can help reduce the acute pains.

The disease can be treated either by the use of over-the-counter medications or with the recommendation of lifestyle change. In this case, the most effective mode of treatment is by recommending a change of lifestyle. Many drugs cause GERD and the first type of drug that plays a very huge role in causing the disorder is alcohol.  For this reason, the nurse will recommend the patient to avoid alcohol as much as possible. The second thing that contributed to the disease is too much weight. In this case, the patient is recommended to try and engage in physical activities so that they can lose some weight. The patient is also recommended to avoid most of the junk foods if at all they want to reduce the risk of GERD. More to this the patient should wear loose clothes and eat small meals slowly. If one can adhere to all of the above recommendations, then they can easily be treated with GERD. The second method of treating GERD is by the use of medication. The first type of medication that can be helpful is the use of antacid’s which will play a major role in neutralizing the acid in the stomach. Various anti acids can be recommended to the patient and they include, Mylanta, Rolaids, and even Tums. The alternative medication that can be implemented will reduce acid production and so there will only be enough gas for digestion in the body.

Cimetidine, another alternative is the use of H-2 receptors blockers which are prescribed by the doctor. Lastly, surgery and other procedures have also proven to be very effective in the treatment of the disease. The first procedure is Fundoplication where the doctor uses a wrap the top of the stomach which helps tighten the muscles which will, in turn, prevent reflux.  The other method is the use of the LINX device which helps keep the junction closed to refluxing acid (Gottlieb, 2007). The second disease that the patient was diagnosed with was peptic ulcer disease. This is the simplest terms possible that can be described as a break in the inner lining of the stomach mainly in the intestines or even the lower esophagus. The main cause of the disease is the presence of the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori which causes an infection in the intestines.     

 When diagnosing most of the diseases that affect the stomach, the one common test is endoscopy, where the doctor uses an endoscope with a light and a camera. The endoscope is inserted in the upper abdomen where the doctor can observe any problem and abnormality present (Chan, 2009). The second type of test that is very effective and can be used is the blood lab test. Some blood is drawn and taken to the lab where the medical personnel look for any bacteria that may be present.  The third test that can be conducted is the gastrointestinal series of tests where an x-ray is used to observe the abnormalities that may exist in the abdomen. Before concluding that the disease is peptic ulcer, one must observe some symptoms such as vomiting blood, dark blood in the stool, problems breathing, nausea, and even unexplained loss of weight.  Again, this emphasizes the importance of conducting full-body diagnostics. Various treatment methods are available for peptic ulcers the first one being the change of lifestyle. This can be termed as the most effective method of treatment for the disease.

The first recommendation is that the patient should avoid food that is not comfortable for them such as fatty foods or even spicy foods. More to this, the patient should be aware that it will not help if they increase their intake of milk and even dairy products. Instead, they may even cause an increase in acid in the stomach.  It is also recommendable for the patient to avoid eating snacks late into the night. Drugs might also contribute to the condition reason why the patient is recommended to completely stop the use of tobacco. Lastly, the patient should reduce the stress levels and even manage stress better. If this method of treatment is not effective, then one can use medication such as antibiotics. The main role of the antibiotic is to kill the bacteria present in the body.  The second type of medication that can be used is that which stops the production of acid (BC Campus, 2015). 


BC Campus. (2015). 2.5 head-to-Toe assessment – Clinical procedures for safer patient care

Kortenbach, J. A., Sixto Jr, R., Smith, K. W., Slater, C. R., & Gottlieb, S. (2007). U.S. Patent No. 7,232,445. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Malfertheiner, P., Chan, F. K., & McColl, K. E. (2009). Peptic ulcer disease. The lancet374(9699), 1449-1461.